Damage Costs of Toxic Metals

The most harmful toxic metals, in terms of damage costs, are arsenic, cadmium, mercury and lead. In the AMESTIS Project Nedellec and Rabl reviewed the epidemiological literature on the health effects of these metals and calculated the damage costs, using the intake fractions of Spadaro and Rabl [2004]. The results are presented in a series of three papers:

            Rabl+Nedellec ToxMetals Part1 Method.pdf

             Rabl+Nedellec Toxic Metals Part2 Hg+Pb.pdf

             Rabl+Nedellec Toxic Metals Part3 As+Cd.pdf

The calculations are documented in this Excel file

            ToxicMetals articles.xlsx


RiskPoll is a suite of impact assessment programs designed to estimate health and environmental risks from airborne emissions of "classical" pollutants (e.g., SO2, NOx, CO, particles and their secondary aerosols such as sulfates) and toxic metals (As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni and Pb).  The analysis is steady state.  The impacted receptors include: human health, agricultural crops and building materials. Both physical impacts and damage costs can be quantified using a methodology that is transparent, easy to implement and requires few user input data values.

The emphasis in RiskPoll is to obtain a reasonably accurate and relevant approximation of the impacts using a "simplified" approach. RiskPoll requires a minimum or Core input dataset.  For particulate health risks, for example,  the user must provide data for the pollutant emission rate and deposition, the population density for an area centered at the source and typically having a radius in the range of 500 to 1000 km, and the exposure response functions for assessing health impacts.  However, if more input data are known (e.g., meteorological statistics and stack parameters), improved results are calculated.   The program comes preloaded with default pollutant deposition velocities for selected regions around the world and includes lists of exposure response functions.

The monetary process is optional.  The monetization process requires country specific unit cost data for each impact quantified ($ per impact case).  In the absence of such cost values, a procedure is described in the documentation for transferring known costs from one country to another location.

The current program version is 1.052 (dated June 2012)

System requirements

The RiskPoll software is a 32-bit application written in Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0 for the Windows operating system.  The program has been tested on Windows 95, 98, 2000, XP, Windows NT4.0, Windows Vista and Windows 7.  The software was developed assuming a screen resolution equal to or better than 1024 by 768.  To take full advantage of the program’s functionality, a mouse is highly recommended.

Software requirements

In addition to the RiskPoll program and supporting files, the following software should be available on the computer.

Microsoft Excel 7.0 or later

This software is required to run the AGRIMAT Model, which assesses the impacts and damages to crops and materials, and RiskPoll_MultiMedia, which carries out a health risk assessment from exposure to toxic metals emitted to air. RiskPoll results can also be exported to Excel for further analysis and plotting.

Contact information

For feedback or to report problems, please contact Dr. Joseph V. Spadaro <> or Dr. A. Rabl (



ReadMe RP1.052 Installer.txt    

* RiskPoll Software (WinZip file ~ 27 MB, extract files and double click on Setup.exe to install, August 2004)

RiskPoll 1052 

* ExternE: latest exposure-response functions and unit costs (.dat file as of February 2005)