Note that the damage cost estimates in the various publications are not always the same because the methodology has been evolving.

Publications by Topic, to download  

A. Methodology

Methodology for the analysis of impact pathways:

            Rabl+00a AnnualReview.pdf

     (see also the ExternE Methodology Update 2005: Methodology_update_v30.pdf)

Air dispersion and variation of damages with site and source characteristics

           Curtiss+96a SiteDep.pdf 

How to account for CO2 from biogenic sources

            Rabl+07 LCA biomass.pdf

Discounting of intergenerational costs

            Rabl96 IntergenDiscount.pdf

Particulate matter composition and uncertainties of health dose-response functions

            Rabl99 ComponentsPM-Health.pdf

Damage estimates due to ozone

            Rabl+98 Ozone.pdf

Air pollution damage to buildings

           Rabl99a Buildings.pdf

Calculation of life expectancy (LE) loss due to air pollution

            Rabl98 Mortality.pdf (static calculation)  

            Leksell+01 Mortality.pdf (dynamic calculation)  

            Rabl03 NumOfDeathsVsYOLL.pdf (updated results including infant mortality) 

                        (in French: Rabl03 Mortalite-PollAtm.pdf)

            Rabl06 LE framework.pdf (relation between time series, intervention studies and cohort studies)

            Rabl+11 LE HongKong.pdf (measuring LE change due to PM10 and SO2 with time series)

Determination of the so-called "value of statistical life"

            Desaigues+95 ValueOfLife.pdf

Determination of the value of a life year

            Desaigues+07 MortalVal REP.pdf (contingent valuation in France)

            Desaigues+07 RS1b WP6 D6-7 Final Report-VOLY.pdf (contingent valuation in 9 countries of EU);    

                    for a short published version see Desaigues+11 VOLY.pdf

Multimedia assessment of damage costs of toxic metal emissions

            Spadaro+Rabl04 Metals.pdf (As, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb)

            Spadaro+Rabl Hg08 (+Fig).pdf (Hg)

             Rabl+Nedellec Toxic Metals Part1 Methodology.pdf

             Rabl+Nedellec Toxic Metals Part2 As+Cd.pdf

             Rabl+Nedellec Toxic Metals Part3 Hg+Pb.pdf


            Spadaro+Rabl Uncertainty+Corr08.pdf (analysis of uncertainties of air pollution)

            Rabl+05 Uncertainty.pdf (Effect of the uncertainties on policy decisions)

B. Applications


Health costs of transport


            (including augmentation of damages due to trapping of pollution in  street canyons)

            Rabl2003VoitElec.pdf  (Voiture propre, in French only)

Damage assessment for electric vehicles (for old NiCad batteries)


Comparison of buses with diesel (w and w/o particle filter) and with natural gas


Comparison of hybrid and conventional cars

            Spadaro+Rabl06 Hybrid-Conventional.pdf

Benefits of switching from car to walking or bicycling

            Rabl+11 ActiveTransport.pdf (full article)

            BrochureActiveTransport.docx (brief summary)


Impacts and external costs of energy systems

            Dreicer+Rabl02 FuelChain.pdf

            Rabl+01 CoutsExtElec.pdf (French)

            Dreicer+1995nuclear.pdf   (External costs of nuclear energy in France)

Agricultural impacts

Damage cost of nitrogen fertilizer

           vonBlottnitz+06 N_fertilizer.pdf

Colon cancer due to nitrate in drinking water

           vanGrinsven,Rabl,Kok Npaper EnvHealth10.pdf

Waste treatment

Health risks of air pollution from waste incineration

            Rabl+98IncineratorRisks.pdf (French: Rabl+98IncinérateursRisques.pdf)

Comparison of damage costs of landfill and incineration

            Rabl,Spadaro+Zoughaib08 Landfill-Incin.pdf


Policy applications

Damage costs nuclear accident vs alternatives


Tools for Environmental Assessment for Policy

            Rabl+Holland08  LCA,ExtCost etc.pdf (LCA, External Costs and Multi-criteria Analysis) 

Health risks due to technologies 

            Rabl+00c EnvironRisk.pdf (comparisons, perception, communication)

            Rabl99b CoutsPollAtmos.pdf  (Health costs due to air pollution in Paris [in  French])

Improving Policy Responses to The Risk of Air Pollution

            Rabl+07 J Tox Env Health.pdf

Environmental benefits of PV: do they justify the development costs?

           vdZwaan+Rabl03 ProspectsPV-SE.pdf (detailed solar calculations)

            vdZwaan+Rabl04 PV-EnPol.pdf

Climate change

            Rabl+vanderZwaan-CC09.pdf (Cost–benefit analysis, uncertainties and the value of information)

Joseph V. Spadaro, Sérgio H. Faria and Anil Markandya "Decarbonising urban transportation"; available from


List of references

Rabl A and Rabl VA. 2013. “External Costs of Nuclear: Greater or Less than the Alternatives?” Energy Policy, vol. 57, 575–584.

Rabl A, Nazelle A. 2012. “Benefits of Shift from Car to Active Transport”. Transport Policy, vol. 19 (1), 121–131.  Rabl+11 ActiveTransport.pdf

Rabl A, Thach TQ, Chau PYK and Wong CM. 2011.  “How to determine life expectancy change of air pollution mortality: a time series study”. Environmental Health, 2011, 10:25 (16 pp.). Rabl+11 LE HongKong.pdf.

B Desaigues, D Ami, A Bartczak, M Braun-Kohlová, S Chilton, M Czajkowski, V Farreras, A Hunt, M Hutchison, C Jeanrenaud, P Kaderjak, V Máca, O Markiewicz, A Markowska, H Metcalf, S Navrud, JS Nielsen, R Ortiz, S Pellegrini, A Rabl, P Riera, M Scasny, M-E Stoeckel, R Szántó, J Urban. 2011. “Economic Valuation of Air Pollution Mortality: A 9-Country Contingent Valuation Survey of Value of a Life Year (VOLY)”. Ecological Indicators, vol.11 (3), 902–910. Desaigues+11 VOLY.pdf. 

van Grinsven HJM, Rabl A, de Kok TM. 2010.  “Estimation of incidence and social cost of colon cancer due to nitrate in drinking water in the EU: a tentative cost-benefit assessment”. Environmental Health, vol. 9:58 (12 p). vanGrinsven,Rabl,Kok Npaper EnvHealth10.pdf.  

Rabl A and B. van der Zwaan. 2009. “Cost–benefit analysis of climate change dynamics: uncertainties and the value of information”. Climatic Change, Volume 96, Number 3 / October, 313-333. Rabl+vanderZwaan-CC09.pdf. 

J. V. Spadaro and Rabl A. 2008. “Global Health Impacts and Costs due to Mercury Emissions”. Risk Analysis, Vol.28 (3), June 2008, 603-613. Spadaro+Rabl Hg08 (+Fig).pdf 

A. Rabl, J. V. Spadaro and A. Zoughaib. 2008. “Environmental Impacts and Costs of Municipal Solid Waste: A Comparison of Landfill and Incineration”. Waste Management & Research, vol.26, 147-162 (2008).  Rabl,Spadaro+Zoughaib08 Landfill-Incin.pdf

J. V. Spadaro and A. Rabl. 2008. “Estimating the Uncertainty of Damage Costs of Pollution: a Simple Transparent Method and Typical Results”. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, vol. 28 (2008) 166–183. Spadaro+Rabl Uncertainty+Corr08.pdf

Rabl A and Holland M. 2008. “Environmental Assessment Framework for Policy Applications: Life Cycle Assessment, External Costs and Multicriteria Analysis”. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, Vol. 51(1), 81 – 105, January 2008.  Rabl+Holland08  LCA,ExtCost etc.pdf

Rabl A, Benoist A, Dron D, Peuportier B, Spadaro JV and Zoughaib A (2007): “How to account for CO2 emissions from biomass in an LCA”. Int J LCA 12 (5) 281. A French version “Comment prendre en compte les é missions de CO2 provenant de la biomasse dans une analyse de cycle de vie”, Pollution Atmosphérique, Numéro Spécial Le Bois Energie, 221-222, March 2009. Rabl+07 LCA biomass.pdf

B. Desaigues, A. Rabl, D. Ami, Boun My Kene, S. Masson, M-A  Salomon and L. Santoni. 2007. "Monetary Value of a Life Expectancy Gain due to Reduced Air Pollution: Lessons from a Contingent Valuation". Revue d'Economie Politique, Vol.117 (5), 675-698. Desaigues+07 MortalVal REP.pdf

A.Rabl, J. Nathwani, M. Pandey, and F. Hurley. 2007. “Improving Policy Responses to the Risk of Air Pollution”. J of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A, 70:3, 316 – 331 (2007).  Rabl+07 J Tox Env Health.pdf

A. Rabl. 2006. “Analysis of air pollution mortality in terms of life expectancy changes: relation between time series, intervention and cohort studies”. Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source 2006, 5:1 (01 Feb 2006), Rabl06 LE framework.pdf

H. von Blottnitz, A. Rabl, D. Boiadjiev, T. Taylor and S. Arnold. 2006. “Damage Costs of Nitrogen Fertilizer in Europe and Their Internalization”. J. Environmental Planning and Management, Vol. 49, No. 3, 413 – 433, May 2006. vonBlottnitz+06 N_fertilizer.pdf

A Rabl. 2005. “Air pollution mortality: harvesting and loss of life expectancy”. J Toxicology and  Environ Health, A 68: 1175-80 (2005). Rabl05 J Tox Env Health.pdf

A Rabl, JV Spadaro & B van der Zwaan. 2005. “Uncertainty of Air Pollution Cost Estimates: To What Extent does it Matter?”.  Environmental Science & Technology, vol.39(2), 399-408 (2005).  Rabl+05 Uncertainty.pdf

B van der Zwaan & A Rabl. 2004. “The learning potential of photovoltaics: implications for energy policy”.  Energy Policy, vol.32(13), 1545–1554 (2004). vdZwaan+Rabl04 PV-EnPol.pdf

J V Spadaro & A Rabl. 2004. “Pathway Analysis for Population-Total Health Impacts of Toxic Metal Emissions”,  Risk Analysis, vol.24(5), 1121-1141 (2004).  Spadaro+Rabl04 Metals.pdf

B van der Zwaan & A Rabl. 2003. “Prospects for PV: a learning curve analysis”.  Solar Energy, Vol.74(1), 19-31 (2003).  vdZwaan+Rabl03 ProspectsPV-SE.pdf

A Rabl. 2003. “Interpretation of Air Pollution Mortality: Number of Deaths or Years of Life Lost?”.   J Air and Waste Management, Vol.53(1), 41-50 (2003). A shortened French version has been published as “Mortalité due à la pollution de l’air: comment interpréter les resultants”, Pollution Atmosphérique, vol.180, 541-550 (2003).  Rabl03 NumOfDeathsVsYOLL.pdf

A Rabl & M Dreicer. 2002. "Health and Environmental Impacts of Energy Systems".  International Journal of Global Energy Issues, vol.18(2/3/4), 113-150 (2002).  Dreicer+Rabl02 FuelChain.pdf

A Rabl. 2002. “Environmental Benefits of Natural Gas for Buses”,  Transportation Research, Part D, Vol.7(6), 391-405 (2002).  Rabl2002Buses-Diesel-NatGas.pdf

JV Spadaro & A Rabl. 2002."Air pollution damage estimates: the cost per kilogramme of pollutant".  International J. of Risk Assessment and Management, Vol.3 (1), 75-98 (2002).  Spadaro+02 Cost|kgPoll.pdf

JV Spadaro & A Rabl.  2001. “Damage Costs due to Automotive Air Pollution and the Influence of Street Canyons”. Atmospheric Environment, vol.35 (28), 4763 – 4775 (2001).   Spadaro+2001bAuto+Canyon.pdf

Leksell L & A Rabl. 2001. “Air Pollution and Mortality: Quantification and Valuation of Years of Life Lost”.  Risk Analysis, vol.21(5), 843-857 (2001).  Leksell+01 Mortality.pdf

A Rabl. 2001. "The importance of external costs for the competitiveness of renewable energies".  International Journal of Global Energy Issues, Special Issue on Renewable Energies. Vol. 15 (1-2), 49-58 (2001).  Rabl01 ExtCosts+Solar.pdf

K Funk and A Rabl. 1999. “Electric versus conventional vehicles: Social Costs and Benefits in France“.  Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment. Vol.4(6), 397-411 (1999).  Funk+1999ElecVehicle.pdf

J. V. Spadaro and A. Rabl. 1999. “Estimates of real damage from air pollution: site dependence and simple impact indices for LCA”.  International J. of Life Cycle Assessment. Vol.4 (4), 229-243 (1999). Spadaro+99 IPA-LCA.pdf

A. Rabl. 1999. “Air Pollution and Buildings: an Estimation of Damage Costs in France”.  Environmental Impact Assessment Review. vol.19(4), pp. 361 – 385 (1999).   Rabl99a Buildings.pdf

A. Rabl and JV Spadaro. 1999."Environmental Damages and Costs: an Analysis of Uncertainties".  Environment International, Vol.25(1), 29-46 (1999)  Rabl+99 Uncertainty.pdf

A Rabl and N Eyre.  1998."An Estimate of regional and global O3 Damage from Precursor NOx and VOC Emissions". Environment International, vol.24(8), 835-850 (1998).  Rabl+98 Ozone.pdf

A Rabl. 1998. “Mortality risks of air pollution: the role of exposure-response functions". Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol.61, pp.91-98 (1998).  Rabl98 Mortality.pdf

A Rabl, JV Spadaro and PD McGavran. 1998. "Health Risks of Air Pollution from Incinerators: a Perspective".  Waste Management & Research, vol.16, pp.365-388 (1998). French version published as "Effets sur la santé de la pollution atmosphérique due aux incinérateurs : une perspective". Déchets, Sciences & Technique. Nº9, pp.4-22 (1998). This paper has received the 1998 Publication Award of ISWA (International Solid Waste Association).  Rabl+98IncineratorRisks.pdf

Curtiss, P. S. and A. Rabl. 1996. "Impacts of air pollution: general relationships and site dependence"  Atmospheric Environment, Vol.30, p.3331-3347 (1996)  Curtiss+96a SiteDep.pdf

A. Rabl. 1996. "Discounting of long term costs: what would future generations prefer us to do?"  Ecological Economics, Vol.17, p.137-145 (1996). Also reprinted in Man-Made Climate Change: Economic Aspects and Policy Options, O. Hohmeyer and K. Rennings, editors, Physica-Verlag, Heidelberg, New York.  Rabl96 IntergenDiscount.pdf

B. Desaigues and A. Rabl. 1995. "Reference Values For Human Life: An econometric analysis of a contingent valuation in France". Chapter 5, p.85-112.  Contingent Valuation, Transport Safety and Value of Life. N. Schwab and N. Soguel, editors.  Kluwer, Boston (1995)  Desaigues+95 ValueOfLife.pdf